Cooking Issues Transcript

Episode 167: Bluto Returns?

today's program has been brought to buy white oak pastures I-5 generation georgia-based beef and Poultry Farm determined to conduct business in an honorable manner for more information visit White Oak pastures. Com I'm Grace Bonnie of after the jump and you're listening to Heritage Radio Network broadcasting live from Bushwick Brooklyn if you like this program visit Heritage Radio Network. Org for thousands more

I'm here

call inspired want to Michigan and Josh is also calling and it does hey how are you she couldn't handle the downtown area survive anywhere other than in Hell's kitchen's pretty much true size

the first two weeks on Tuesday and Tuesday and so you know we couldn't do the radio show and then the week after that last week I was doing foie gras which we can talk about that I was shooting a foie gras thing for vice we're talkin about the

want Robin in California that would pass along time ago just went into effect about a year-and-a-half ago and so they're doing a documentary on government intervention in food and foodstuffs focused mainly on the lady would not attempt to force feed me she would I ask that's what everybody said Hey to 128 what I just did that to call my question into someone

is it we had written in for last week Brandenburg Road in on vacuum maybe later we can talk about it later on

what's been happening anything good anything bad no nothing nothing Brandenburg Road in not like Brendan Byrne Arena Brandon Byrd Road in about vacuum vacuum machines steering and Jackie might want to take the last thing he wrote he said please ask Jack to play Shelter by Bluto it's one of my favorites

put it up my phone at timer the first real Bluto

and I don't have that problem anymore because I like the song is no longer in like 1990 or something. 90 91 92 some of that and then you have the bottle that's left in the fridge I don't know but I'm sure many many people listen here probably drink seltzer Reitman it's probably fair that the lot of us drink bubbly water because he know if you like me you probably like bubbly water to my mom doesn't my mom

point being that back in the day for those you that are old enough to not have a SodaStream or or a combination unit you had to buy bottles of Seltzer and the problem always was hit that you had a shelter of course

guidance

why don't you buy a 2 liter bottle filter

over the course of like a day and a half or so like this in your all right but a shelter even though you drink more shelter than you drink soda is all goes well can we host the Bluto reunions concert

I had to find all that I mean I know I know where I know where two out of the three other folk and Bluto are one of them is a lawyer here and I've got to find a third person music Classics student at the time and for all I know is a Classics Professor now it's a fine we might just have to make it happen weekend accounts Portillo's

yeah I like in and tonics worms like the idea is so awesome but most of the truck show I've been a reader the block for a while but only recently took it upon myself to listen to the podcast I have no idea what I've been missing. Like I do I had to listen to every damn podcast live on out it's like much more difficult when you're actually sitting next to me my rights as a long walk my dog in Spanish Menifee rewarding entertaining experience I learned more than I ever imagined from your show so please keep up the good work I got a few questions for you guys I recently acquired is one of the machines like the lower-cost machines a lot of people ask me about dance I've had we had people ask me about the lot right

and the first thing I did was buy some fruit and some Boos to experiment with vacuum infusion good good man I've done wrapping infusion been an easy canister another whip cream canisters but there was also seem to work comparably well to the E C infusion so I didn't do a controlled test have you done any experiment to see how you compare to each other in terms of flavor extraction do either offer advantages if the other lacks and have you ever tried doing a pressure infusion in Anaya side and immediately transferring to a chamber vac to get further extraction site Foothill that one first so they are a little bit different and you know, November time when my book comes out I've written like extremely long-winded chapter on the difference between between the two of them but you can get compared to other comparable results

thinking about the mechanical vacuum different when you're using a vacuum machine a fruit or whatever into your booze you're sucking a vacuum and it started happening at right we're doing is sucking the air out of the fruit to the fruit got all these are holes in it you suck the air out right but no infusion has happened you might be now it's at some point you're boiling probably unless it's really cold you're boiling some liquid out from the fruit onto the surface you getting probably some transfer of literal fruit juice into the liquor at that point like right at the get-go thing into the fruit yet all the sudden you let the air back in and swam air pressure comes in obviously it hit liquids liquids incompressible liquid Envy a fruit and now you have liquid booze inside your fruit fruit that has

flavored liqueur this point, not that much and yes it's similar to what you get in in an easy but the issue is that the pressure differential in a vacuum machine is only ever about 15 the pressure that you can use to force things in and actually increase the rate of diffusion and at the rate of things moving around is much higher is it is at the higher the pressure when I increase the pressure in E.T the higher the pressure of more rapidly effects of infusion are so flexible because you have a wider pressure range you can work on and it's also easier to do longer-term thing because you can keep under pressure for a long time

you can I would guess that you can do multiple easy things without losing as many volatile as you would if you were stuck at constant vacuum on things which can cause loss of all the through distillation so different but they can be used it can be used

where's the vacuum you can't so you can speed infusions by doing things warm or even hot and another thing that they are the main disadvantage of the volume you can only do what your canister will hold that's the main one and the second one by the cartridges disadvantages to your vacuum I would say and you want more infusion I would say you're going to get more infusion I normally do all of my infusions with two cartridges all of them

and then after that I can also be a fusion the reason I don't is the time when I'm doing a rapid infusion

rapid infusion does as opposed to traditional Fusion is it you can pull out flavors in in different ways and hard to explain. Pepper have the flavor of the pepper and then you have the heat from the pepper in a long term infusion you get a lot of the Heat and the heat a lot of times can try not to flavor the pepper write in order infusion time you get more kind of equal levels of heat and and pepper flavor right so now I can do one of two things at the rapid infusion now I can either let them go longer and then some more like a traditional infusion which means I can have more heat in it right as opposed to pepper flavor to the heat will arrive in relation to the pepper flavor in general what I do so what I'm trying to do rapid infusion time usually trying to take advantage of some sort of the differential infusion that happened over short timescale

increasing the time I increase the amount of ingredients for the vacuum and BC are doing somewhat similar if turned on their head kind of things since I got a chamber back I wanted to do cook show fries cooking for economy and deliciousness and time setting my friend time to arrive at stocked up on chicken breast they were on sale and cook them a 62 for 1 hour with garlic olive oil and some weight at the herbs if I'd like Nautica boys

camping commercial and cold tap water for 20 and then children ice water for 30 before moving in the freezer man somebody's really like a cooling curve on a low temp work crap but no years ago when a guy that the solution to their grandfathers is low temp cooking you know you told me that you don't want to chill me incredibly quickly when it comes out of the bath you want to reabsorb the liquid morphine you wanted to chill slowly because if it kills slowly and reabsorbs more of the cooking liquids that it exudes as it as if that will put it back in so he has this ramped cooling thing and scrap scrap and then we ran a test and it turned out to work

show me a few days later that I realized that there's a populism risk cooking with garlic and a vacuum I'm reasonably sure these are safe to eat would appreciate any clarifications you could offer on the relationship between botulism temperature in vacuum Mercedes before I get too long-winded explanation of my life moose track what I'm saying it's fine it's not a problem the problem with not grow in the freezer botulism will not grow at 60° Celsius right is that up botulism botulism isn't destroyed by freezing for by cooking at normal temperatures so if you can kill them

weasel to work with is that it also formed before so whenever you

botulism bacteria rather than bacteria

into sport endospores are extremely resistant to being destroyed by heat you have to pressure cook to get rid of them and that's why when you pressure cook something all the sudden shelf-stable so you're not going to do that because you're cooking in destroying vegetative cells and as long as you cool it and then keep it frozen and you did it really will not have time there's no way for those Sports and then go from stage to reproducing and producing talk to him right so long as you're okay with me to cook garlic

and it comes from the soil Filipino and botulism is ubiquitous means it's everywhere but you throw it in the oil the oil environment from growing on the garlic and you know why you could be. That's why that's why it's always garlic and botulism because you want to do it it doesn't look dangerous you're fine ask you where to store those suckers at room temperature while you can get home fairly dangerous about garlic in oil as long as you're keeping everything at safe holding and storage temperatures make sense

call arrive unless searing a cast iron pan a ride in my garage gas range for my gas grill Weber Genesis e-330 Avenues at 1 today I tried searing ribeye steak on the grill for 20 minutes. What live bait if any do you cut your meat states with the for ciri and yennefer temperature range that you aim for thanks for the show and best wishes Brandenburg okay this is why I like I like my wife get the angry sometimes like went really quickly with her birthday and I want to make some really good steaks I bought a charcoal like a mini charcoal Hibachi Wichita

no I think he's about to smoke

got some issues with we have to talk about a bunch of times like that primary research years ago on a cooking fumes from walk and women in China increase the level to camp cancer but whatever else he can, I would rather take the hit

a little bit

we're going to be so much if they're not going to enjoy the food because then you shoot yourself in the foot it's all about the enjoyment of the food

I'm still tripped up on spores in that Nastasia didn't freak out when you said it

measure the surface of your pants and get an accurate temperature what's going to happen because the temperature of the pan will probably drop fairly quickly once you put the meat on it at 4 but it's good it's a good it's good I mean I'm unusually are rocking somewhere around 6:50 or High Rock at 800 me all depends on how fast they can they can deliver the stuff cast iron

other words like that smoke even more oil than you think what is olive oil by the way and what I will do is I'll get it hot I'll pour oil literally into the pan it will immediately start smoking like here it doesn't conform to the surface of a pan like a real one. So if you just brush with oil you're liable to have blind spots where is if you had like a good you know a thing or something in the bottom of your your hit all of this point in your brown all the way across the thing but just be where it will catch on fire by there will be playing and there will be smoke and you should just tell whoever is looking at you and calling you incompetent

.

why do Pastors is the only harm in the United States that has its own usda-inspected red meat abattoir on Slaughter House and its own usda-inspected poultry Avatar of slaughter house we partner with Whole Foods to deliver our high quality meat and poultry from Miami Florida all the way to Princeton New Jersey one family one Palm five generations other than 45 years a full circle return to sustainable land stewardship Humane Animal stockmanship some more information please visit our website White Oak pastures. Com

oh yeah how much water makes me want to go get something for dinner right thing about PID controller controller stand for I think I proportional of Integrative in that derivative I think it's one of those controller that's used to do all of the immersion circulators and because what they do is instead of the temperature like going and then Uber shooting the mark like I said a thermostat and then going down and up and before passing back and forth like a cramp up and if they saw it on on the on the temperature do you want and that's what we all use for immersion circulators mistake people do as they think they want to add like a PID controller to things like a deep fryer which you don't the reason it a deep fryer you want to go as fast

Cosmos auto recovery time torn about recovery time they're about accuracy so he's always remember that said you often want one man or woman

why

PID I feel like it's like technology and kitchens like about boys and their toys sociated with men

I want to build an electric kettle for brewing beer brew in a bag style Brew in a bag and a bag came out after I stopped my homeroom but fundamentally what you do is you put that I guess you put the you put your your Grant and a fat-ass sack is Ludacris would say and then put it into the cattle are eventually going to use and then you can pull it out of having to have multiple containers to do it in a bag eliminates the traditional three-vessel system and uses a kettle as the match content boil kettle

you like me to Chris. Cornell Elementary in gallons of water and I didn't have the time to do the calculations but I'm sure you already had there's plenty of a Google calculators out there where you can calculate the heating rate now you see mr. Keating rate for a particular volume of water with a particular wattage of heater so I'm presuming that you've already checked that but that sounds good I also like to use a PID controller so I can actually hold the water at Magic and for 90 minutes then raise it to max out Town smash out and it was it when you're mashing when you make a beer you take the grain the grain has been

barley has been halted the marking means that they started to germinate the enzymes were there there for to break the carbohydrate in The Barley down to sugar right and then that's how that works but you have what you have to do it eventually ring the temperature enough to kill the enzymes and killing the enzymes off called matching out so that you don't necessarily get my memory

so I've been listening to Dave a bit too much yet again on the farms about electric Brewing but all the info as soon as the leader possesses some electrical knowledge I wish I have little not none but little Scythe fuma goes like this directional kind of diagram here which I'm not going to tell you the right way to do it so heating element and a plug into an outlet right now to 2240 review want to call it just want to be a little bit careful when you're using voltage is like that especially because

you're going to be switching the switching that that kind of high voltage supposed to be present near where you're working heaters are dumb element show all heater wants to be have happened if you get plugged directly into a wall right until what you want to think about it is is that the PID controller and a solid state relay all they are is a switch that is going between the wall current and the heater so here's how it works. Otherwise if you need to you can run off to Circus you can run the PID off of a wall socket and you can run the heater off of a 240 but not necessary many PID controller can handle the direct to 20 / 240 most of them run at 2:12 at like 1:20 to 2:40 and between 50 and 60 Cycle FIFA ticket to Europe if you need to anyways

this is not the advice of a trained electrician electrical yourself at your own Peril this is just how it works so then you take the depending on how you use a powered and then you have a return and the power is got the full hundred and ten on it right or hundred 25 or you want to call it under 20 we going up and down AC alternating current is basically dead to return that you send the power back to to ground on to the Circuit face so you could

on an AC regular 110 AC line you could touch the neutral and you know I don't do this lick your finger touch the neutral and touch something and you won't get shot right now in standard household 220 that's not the case have both lines will be hot all the time but the opposite of each other right on on each line but the AC is a way it goes up and down so they go opposite each other so it goes all the way up to you get 220 + 120 240 so there's no safe there's no safe line right then or have they want to maybe this 3/4

attached to it from the plugs in the wall it's been going to have a thermocouple input right which has two connectors on it make sure you hook it up because if using a k-type thermocouple because the red one now I have to go look at it again and then you have usually a reway we can use it as a small solid state relay in the PID controller itself but that relay is not intended handle the power of switching something big by the 5000 watt heater right so that's why you need sometimes it just said that puts 5 Volt or 12 River

that's why you need to solid state relay are the reason you want to sell it state relay and not a regular relay is I hate that clicking and it will be late if it's are in a click and also the real real a really like that doesn't like to be turned off and on very rapidly or the solid state relay it doesn't matter it can turn off and on as much as you want so I can cure PID controller if it's sitting there hoping that the heater off and on it's not going to bother you to have a mechanical issue that's why I do what you do is you have the power to wall power goes to your wall power goes to your PID controller one wire you're the enemy out go to the low voltage side of yourself a relay and then on the other side of your solid state relay you have

one side of power from the wall going to one side of the heater and then on the other side of the heater coming out of it you have it go to one of the the output of the solid state relay and then input of the highball decided to tell if a relay then goes to to back to to to the wall what would happen is like flipping a switch that is opening and closing a circuit between one of the two wires in the high-voltage circuit that is the heater

are there any safety features you want to have since I have friends would like me to build one for them so I want to make sure it's completely safe you know it did not make sure that you

I have to have an architect

we should I would like I would make sure that you get you a have a GFI socket I don't never work with 2:40 with PID so mean all my knowledge has on 120 and 120 I just make sure everything's in Kiev I put fuses and everything and just make sure you're totally safe but I will I will I will draw picture into a child Sitting Bull of the podcast so it's good to stay and it says it's give me a big ol you on the podcast I listen to entire back catalogue twice

I like making popcorn as a snack that's a good statement right there a snack you guys the best flavoring I'm trying to recreate the flavor of zesty Cheese Doritos available in Canada because they are delicious it's also good reason to do something I've never had it but you know I got a picture of it here from Nick and I have to write it in French as well and Stephanie cheese and French sounds terrible

fromage Middletown like Morgan

what are the things that one of the reasons why you have so many flavors is any company that's looking any company that has like a product will take Doritos right and there's a bunch of other snacks out there that you can go for right how do they make sure that you buy Doritos well they can put eight billion different flavors of Doritos in there so they just more of the stuff that you see is Dorito right and plus you already like Doritos and so if you see some other snacks that you don't know and then Doritos with your app to like anyway you look at you like ugh that's the key that's a new Dorito I would try that feel like that's like over the past you know I don't know how many years like that's why you feel like eight billion different new Oreos out there too because like you know there's no name I just kind of like you know increase the Dorito profile across the board doesn't mean that they don't love the original Dorito

back to next question as to what I had available at home making a spice grinder and it tasted pretty good but not much like the recode I use nutritional yeast cheese and provide a cheesiest cheese Cheez-It flavor salt onion powder and garlic powder onion powder garlic powder I know that people like it I hate it when you think about it don't mind it in like that the flavor kind of like burnt flavor that like garlic bagels have but I don't even like garlic Bagels but I like that flavor in an everything bagel I used to put it on pizza garlic powder when I was younger but I don't

how much how much would a like next week when we're back we're all together at the at the show should I bring a thing of garlic powder and it starts sprinkling it over the p10c with a saber-tooth right garlic salt or garlic salt and see how their management response

Lewes de weather

onion powder garlic powder I only recently got some MSG in citric acid which is one of the reasons also why the East stuff is in there because it's at any further protein breakdown powder to get that kind of umami crap in there and citric acid and I'm curious to see how adding those will get me closer to the right flavor and then he has a lot of spice mixes fall to the bottom of the bowl when I'm only using finely ground salt to add to the pot with the Colonel's and 6 grade if I do this whether spices they just burn yes because spices for an hour or so it doesn't on the popcorn I got an answer for you I would make this our problem I need if we listen to get closer commercial flavor without a bunch of industrial-grade is closed so you can make a good flavor popcorn kernels in a pot with coconut oil on an electric rain here is the list of ingredients

she's angry with soap whey powder salt MSG onion powder sugar cheddar and parmesan cheese is corn syrup solids natural artificial flavors Karl garlic powder citric acid sodium case made autolyzed yeast extract disodium

disodium guanylate feel like the track and the and all that other stuff is there so they don't have to add as much msv want to add that stuff for creating that kind of stuff there peace flavors in the sodium Case-Mate the way powder the parmesan cheese in the cheddar so you can just Jack Lee actual cheese powder that you have in it instead of doing that probably too similar effect in is in there to bulk up the spice powder so that you know kind of Bolt better and the onion sugar and corn syrup solids to be up there for water Highway band think so and it natural artificial flavors with rating for the spices in right and the citric acid that's all there for the flavors that you're looking for something like that he's going to make sure you get the MSG write the secret that you don't have is it what they do and this is what's going to blow your mind what they do is they mixed that spice mix into an oil mixture

and then spray that oil mixture on to the Doritos and that's how you do it and that's how you do it on popcorn to the reason that movie theater popcorn is so incredibly caloric is that you is that they pop it and then they spray or pump the butter mixture on top of it that has that flavor right they're adding a bunch of extra oil and you're going to have to do the same you don't have to add that much oil the way you do if you mix the spice into a slurry right so that it's like you know not a pace after you run enough to coat then you can stick The yocan Stix a popcorn at 1 to be hot and you want the oil be hot but not burning he's going to bring the spices and then like swirl it over and then put it between two bowls and shake the hell out of it so that it goes all around look and see if you have enough you can add some more and do it you can actually if you have a Tumblr you can spray it in you can spray it in a very few people

can do that with you what you say to how you pop it again you pop it on electric Wayne Dedication but the secret is oil slurry recently noticed that the milk will separate a lot when I add kosher salt to braid a little bit when I miss salt and stay together when I add Celtic Grace off because of his might happen Paul you haven't guessed I don't have an answer I was trying to do some research I didn't have time to do the research on it but I can try to look for it next time I think the issue here is that you have the almond milk might be the almond milk might be susceptible to certain

certain ions and not others so kosher salt is exclusively pretty much sodium chloride NaCl whereas Celtic Ray schalk is probably has a lot more of the other impurities that are present in seawater like magnesium or calcium and it's these kind of divalent cations that can sometimes do things like clot tofu and other things like this and so I don't know that I haven't been a test to see whether almond milk is sensitive to divalent positive ion but that is my guess but I was going to do some research on a chance but I don't know from Miami right there a Dave & Jack I was wondering if

listen to process by which you boil and soak Green Kentucky corn in a an alkaline mixture typically made of calcium hydroxide and then you let that soak for a while it doesn't number of awesome things like break down and make it easier to grind partially cook some of this into a hydrocolloid mask that helps to buy namaste into the awesome stuff that we know as tortillas it's the reason why tortillas are tortillas and not just cornmeal pancakes

can you recommend a good source of corn readily available in the US I came across it www.ovcb.com

you guys there

outside since I've lost a line Tortilleria the only one for a while it was doing it here in New York was doing the their own victimization so I think those are the guys that we used as much to buy from skip this stuff 50 * back as it does to know if you're only doing it a little bit as it does to just at the corner if I could shipping was more than the corn local unless you're going to buy 55 seconds Casey had go to them but you know I know that Danny said he was using Anson Mills that's a super pricey heirloom corn that's another place you might want to go and then I do you have any experience with grinder Mill or any other equivalent to Fresh next to Mom tomorrow

is the one that the oh my God and his name is one of my head guy from the same as being place in California anyways Rancho Rancho Gordo Bean he has one he can get them in Mexico but they're not available during looked awesome but no I've only ever use the corona have used Metate and Mano that was a pain in the ass and not recommend doing that which is fake traditional way to do it used a food processor again not recommended the reason is is that you have to add too much liquid to it to get at the grind properly that way and I've used the Corona and Mill which is made in Colombia but if you say so and it works but it took a pain in the ass it just really a pain to do so but everyone who I know that use an external mic says it's awesome and how long will it last in the fridge vacuum sealed or not I think fresh Masa

best practice to hold a Fresh Tortillas to write thank you and cheers Steve what you make Masa I think it's better to hold Masa and it is a whole tortillas once you take a tortilla and heat it and then it kind of cool and I don't think it's ever the same again ever I think it's kind of like you know it's kind of like you know when you go and they make crepes and then they reheat the crates and they're not quite as good as when they made him fresh much more sale with a tortilla tortilla really wants to be eating right after it's made right after it's made Masa on the other hand I think I can

cold day in the fridge better than tortilla can so if you're going to hold one I would hold Masha so I would say I would take a flower that you use when you're not making your own my face like that it's like you know instant Masa basically height of the tortilla is a nicely made fresh Masa Tortilla Fresh then the next level down from that is that was made yesterday made into a torta maybe even Frozen I don't know if my fuel freeze I never tried it. It was made into a tortilla made Mazdas made yesterday made into a tortilla today trash bank and then I would say tortilla made today then after that would be yesterday's fresh Masa tortillas and then further down from that yesterday

real life questions about where we got our corn from

oh yeah it was a blue pumpkin from the food science department you say we're just said State University doesn't say what states $40 I can't seem to find much at all I found a little bit of something drew that sucker the only thing I'll be able to find on that model is that it is I have a picture of some sort of like 1970s looking woman holding it up in some sort of like super truly weird value and groove on the face outfits like long johns with like a halter top Long John over the long long john

and it looks to be a vacuum pump do you know that's an oil vein guy out by the way just so you guys know the questions are going to be using these punks be worth trying to use for DIY rotary evaporator chamber back of the leg that guy looks good for no problem I don't know if it's going to be good for a chamber back so I don't think it'll evacuate fast enough but he's got to make sure they're still in good working order because it's definitely strong enough for scientific Maxima d88 similarly a rotary vane oil-based vacuum pump to make sure they work right both of those pumps work fine the Fisher Scientific one only does 7 cubic feet per minute which is similar to the refrigeration vacuum pumps that I buy on eBay when I'm doing my DIY stuff and you can do

chamber vacuum machine with them if they're not as nearly as fat as powerful as a big ones but they will work just need to make sure that you keep them clean those would be useful for those things remembered Daniel at Harvard stuff he said that you run those things for a long long time let's have an oil filter on them because they they can I heat up and I put out silicone Will Smith when she says is not so good to breathe I don't know if that's true or not but I kind of tend to trust Daniel 5412 microcentrifuge five bucks for the 1970s no lid but a child

I haven't done better pay me whatever but it looks like it only has 12 by 1.5 mm milliliter capacity I eat not very much that's a total is it worth using for color applications I know where should I invest a $10 on eBay for sale thanks Drew

if you want to experiment with it you don't have another Center she's lying around see if you were going to experiment with something like that would it be useful for is doing some vacuum pumps to the truck you put a seal I look at this dude online at small enough that I bet you it's Crush proof under vacuum so if you just put a little seal on your trunk of acrylic and a vacuum tube to it you can suck a vacuum in an idea is that liquid in the tooth won't boil out of the tooth because they're under centrifical force it will pop the bubbles as a foreman or boiling and so you can do relatively rapid evaporation until you could probably evaporate product and it's pretty well so you might want to try for the center map application but for actual Center Fusion

okay and we have to get back to Chris's question next time he had a question about making up your stuff delicious spell baccala and potatoes

but that's okay. I'll get you a question next time I'm trying to stabilize your your your kind of brown. Phone they're good to be back next week thanks for listening to this program on Heritage Radio Network. Org you can find all of our archive programs on our website or as podcast in the iTunes Store by searching Heritage Radio Network you can like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter at Heritage underscore radio you can email us questions at any time at info at Heritage Radio Network. Org Heritage Radio network is a nonprofit organization to donate and become a member visit our website today thanks for listening