Cooking Issues Transcript

Episode 140: Fermentation & Tofu

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Harvard and then he in Austria I couldn't I couldn't call him because we were actually shooting everything I was I was in Austria for EC they people that make whipped cream makers as there's some stuff over there and over in last week we'll talk about that in a minute today joined as usual I wear jackets Jack no love for us today and he's just going to certainly is speaking of this year's going to be a good harvest for apples so look for look for me to start screaming about how much I love certain apple right he's become in heat

nobody asked me to Colonel drinkard if I can get a good supply of a ashmead kernel from Fateh what after I locate my Supply that's me, and buy everything on me. Tell everyone else where I can go get the ask me cuz I'm kind of a very summer person so I kind of just like mourning the loss of my favorite season but yeah but I guess it will be nice to go apple picking and stuff A Reason which way do you think would be the opposite pasty to Lobster and back and back and forth its my two speeds tasty and loves her +721-288-497-2128

3 years been going up to Harvard they have just like it would take about science and cooking and do the first lecture with the Harold McGee and kind of kick off this kind of science you know science cooking in a thingamajig

and most of us are going to bring it in or going to do actual Chef demonstrations and they gave you know Harold and I doing some demo and some gapping to kind of kick it off and start with the scientific so this year I got a day why don't you listen to bring the bus and going up on his third you want some torches got packed it when we first bought a miniature puffing when it was used on the MythBusters program you can get it from Chinese popcorn I believe it would call Chinese popcorn

I don't recommend you purchase this item unless you are well-versed in adding safety gear because it comes with no safety that all Piper and I from you next week we built a huge safety cage for it so I would say if we added some over pressure release valve so that we couldn't get it wouldn't explode and if it did nothing bad would happen in such a hundred pounds relief in into my my Subaru Outback we drive it at the Harvard but as we load the stuff in we put a bunch of torches in and we forgot to switch the Torches into the full off the vision safety know if you guys so all of a sudden we're about to pull in the parking lot we here

stop stop we can start smelling the propane because we are on right now so for the whole trip just what's happening now opens the what if I flash off is propane right now wouldn't that be funny and then click the button and flashes of propane off

fibrin have much of arm hair anymore so we go to Harvard you know I'm hot and heavy with this football not well whatever weight to it with the stuffing gun we unload it was set it up in this in this now because you never been to up to Harvard Addison call The Sign Center Redwood does a big science demonstrations right and we loaded in there and it's a public lecture so it's you know it's not students necessarily has anyone from the community around Cambridge Boston can come see it I think it's so they show up lets me of pretty full pretty packed you know house and

we fired the gun twice to test it beforehand to make sure that we had all this stuff down so we go to fire it in the freaking sealant around the inside of the puffing on gave way the Puffin gun started on spin which means he relies on the fact that your Volvo lysing the sum of the moisture that's inherent inside of brain so we start with rice let's say around 17% moisture a 50ft woman have a fairly high moisture 70% were using as she gets think it started with a relatively high moisture rice you put it into the Puffin gun a small portion of that moisturize volatilize and used to pressurize the Puffin gun and the rest of the moisture that's in the in the rice is used to gelatinize the starch at very high temperatures right and then to flash off and go open the gun expand and I told him I stressed to two roles there

if there's even a small leak in a puffin gun a small leak you evolve like when you volatilize the liquid it leaves and then you keep sucking wish her out and then eventually you don't have enough moisture left of where to build pressure and so you just Scorch your product and he liked it has scorched pellet so I notice that the pressure thing is fluctuating like oh no there's a little league I look over and see the ceiling pipe and I can see that I'm spinning so a last-minute have to go to work I jacked the heat a little bit for a minute realize I was going to get the pressure up and here's the problem you have to vent it anyway because the pressure going to keep going up and you don't want the safety to go off right right so we're not the thing open the flies out we can be spray scorched we space massage and I actually saw it a beautiful we have the same if you look at the YouTube videos of these things in action in in China everyone fires into what we lovingly call the filthy sock there's like a filthy sock on the ground that they fire the stuff into that they didn't you know that David and I made our own filthy sock I think the focus

I broke my sewing machine on it and it's a she broke her sewing machine. So it's a to sewing machine filthy stuff a sock problem anyways so why are all these like burnt rice pallets into the filthy and I think it's over right only we set off the damn fire alarms and the entire building had to be evacuated there's a bunch of like science signs people in lab coats like sitting there moping not being able to do their experiments on this site on the sidewalk it's a freaking nightmare right my favorite was is that

that it got picked up in in eater and then tap the comment was somewhere somebody come and you didn't miss much because there's a reason this guy's never had a shift job right and sweet, you like that haters because we have a bunch Gloria Goodwin Lori Goodwin mispronounce your name Gloria what do you think

re-up leaving sorry I just butchered your name listen people people have written him more than once to know that I'm going to butcher your name right so you might as well just give me a little pronunciation guide so that I don't push your name but makes you feel bad makes me feel stupid to lose lose situation right I hate poetry people's names who by the way tell me how to pronounce his name it was not Ripper not repair whatever is raipur thanks for the pizza party pizzas were delicious save some peaches have the same here in my feeling on peaches sorry but I'm going to go to the same as second mate late peaches

I am massage and I only really agree on one thing in life right and that is that that that the best peaches actually nectarine right that's that's the kind of the only fundamental thing that we agree on in terms of food but that's because we get in general kind of crappy pizza's here in New York when you were growing up in SoCal so but as Peaches go right so there are people who are adherents so John sent us some of these donut style white peaches and then some regular yellow you know I don't know the bride he actually did he answer this right on General are so floral but they lack the acid backbone does anyone know of a peach variety that has that floral characteristic that has the acid backbone too kind of back it up so that

has that kind of awesome Peach flavor what I've never have white floral floral and that we eat we were having an art in our tastings a kickstand which one comes to mind but yes I'm going to pair means I like you like this either especially likes you know likes her mouth to be smacked around a little bit by a high acid by acid I don't want to hear anything people okay this fabulous tequila sauce and it's a from a simple recipe for tequila hot sauce that was posted in 2011 but half of mine mainly on fish and it's one if I believe it's from Hill Country the recipe

I think I got to go look it up anyway and it's wonderful and then forgot about it and it got pushed to the back of a cupboard do you think they're still okay to use after all this time or would there be any risks the Chili's have lost all of their color now in the Patron Silver is quite dark but I would think that the alcohol prevent bacterial growth I just wanted to make sure before I use it thanks Cory Henry he's a professor of anthropology at the University of Minnesota okay you you're in good shape here this is totally safe now the question is what's going to happen to the taste of it after all this time and I and I don't know right cuz it's not going to be a hundred percent disabled but everything's pretty much at this point we called reached equilibrium so it's not that it's not that all the all the same rights as some of the color was least they didn't reach out all of their color at least I'll probably to the degree that probably equal in color with Patron bottle

it was only safety risk so you have with this sort of thing aren't with aren't with liquor like tequila are with oils right so if you were packing on a oil thing like this then it would be so you know fairly unsafe but if you were going to do a pepper in an oil situation you have to guarantee the microbials safety of the pepper before you put it into the oil right by increasing the salt content or increase the acid content to Foreman Tatian or whatever in that situation you have to be worried about safety and if you did do something like that for the oil then the problem would be that you were you be adding things that would cause the oil to break down faster so it's a system which is why for oils you use you want to add dry items or you just don't store them that long or you remove the high liquid items in the item is very quickly being the liquid is being very quickly replaced by tequila and even if you were to add a prosperous amount of chili to the tequila you're never going to reduce the alcohol content lower than even if you used over half pepper

rights to Tequila you're still only going to probably drop the the proof down to do you know little above twenty 20% rather and a 20% you're still golden you know so you know there's no safety or no safety issues at all whether or not it still tastes exactly what you want different question but use it away and you should make a note of housing space in this actually something that we do all the time we make liquor isn't a good practice interview making Liquors are infusions is to not use the last little bit and save it for a long long time and kind of see how the flavor just over times that we very interesting stuff. Yes yes yes

Auto Dental story about the radish liquor so do lots of liquor infusions is one thing I do and I'm like five six years ago I made a forget weather was Western ridership daikon daikon bills like that pinkish it was pink is so much with regular pay with a radish infusion into I think was Jen and it tasted fantastic right smell like farts like straight-up fart so I was like okay I'm going to stick this bottle on the shelf and I'm going to taste it you know once a month for the next couple and I tasted it I didn't taste it every month after the first couple of months I'll let it go but over the course of like three or four years I've waited for the fart to go away part never went away we can take over this way moved out of the area now cuz I fart and it ended in a radish liquor

1 minute appointment okay so I got two questions on fermentation family hit them both kind of the same time all the time thinking about fermentation right you may be a people want you to meet us and maybe we'll try to get him to come in here and we'll have like a specific fermentation related

I think that the charges transfer what time do you know that the show on on on Heritage has called for men about it it's a nice fermentation show and probably my favorite part of all times a Years A Center Fusion things probably get me a freebie of him coming onto couldn't get his radio programs. See this is a little insight into see that thing when she says I think he charges that's just her being mean at the stress this Tasha trying to be vicious person it's a little insight for you people into what I live with every day about about tomatoes thanks for explaining what was going on in that Kowloon walled City spring roll wrappers video we saw we talked about this amazing City that had no rules it was like all built up like

play Crazy style like really it's like a steampunk dream nightmare kind of anyway no rules I like Joe pastry in his article Chinese spring roll skin recipe from 2012 and I'm going to give it a shot sometime soon

I'll have to mount it in this year's going to laugh at me because they have my computer with crazy German in in college right and I went to Austria date they were like a year at your accent because at my measurements are there like your actions it's so good it's because Arnold Schwarzenegger comes from comes from Austria and so whenever I speak German I just think about watching Arnold Schwarzenegger movies so instead of like you know so instead of saying like I was get cycling it like in America is perfect and then I was like this is hilarious Italian I could find a good friend of ours Chadwick of Salem

reprinted in the art of fermentation which I reread almost cover to cover last night good luck

I found it until I found the recipe to the letter last year at a 20% salt by weight which was unsurprisingly extremely salty balls and start playing preservation 20% not a typo I looked up the I looked up the technique in the book and so this is like not a typo that Timothy sending us this is actually what they had 20% the recipe says the Finish Pace was originally kept indefinitely at room temperature a level of preservation I don't need the fridge seems like an obvious place where I found a post from the Nordic Food Lab where they use 8% salt play simple recipe same same as in fact they also got the recipe from from the art of fermentation where they use 8% salt but I'm curious if I can go even lower the limit for how much salt I could use it original batch was how salty I wanted my dish to be I'd love to get away from that I either use more of it keep up the great work Timothy that is a fantastic Lehigh salt

you poked tomatoes and you throw them in a bucket and then you let him nothing nothing and you let them ferment and bubble and let white mold grow on the couch. I saw a picture of what the white mold Bubba bubbling on top she's making her and it's like similar to if you can face and and you and you scoop the mold about the top when you're done after it's fermenting and you pass the the liquid to solid through like a the feeling of if you want to get two salads outright the liquid that he doesn't mention how to use but the Nordic Food Lab people they like it right so then you have the liquid which apparently is very fruity and and and awesome smelling according to the Nordic Food Lab wreck in description of it and then you have this solid paste you then need salt into that pace until it becomes like a doe and in that dough is like sticks around indefinitely rice that's the basic thing to 20% salt

you're basically turning it into a tomato paste salt situation you are using it as salt and yes it will keep probably Forever at that salt level but you're right that you're only a baby use a small amount of a to never going to be able to blast a tomato flavor out because you're having such a small amount what you know now the Nordic food Labs 8% salt is going to be fine I'm sure you could do 4% salt even and be okay because remember the water activity and that's already fairly low you've gotten rid of most of the liquid so you're dealing with almost it's already been not dehydrated forcibly had water movement that has a lower water content you're needing salt into it more and you're packing it down so I would bet you could get away with four or even possibly even a little bit less but remember the thing is by adding salt any further it like that the level of salt that you add is going to change the what what bacteria and what other floor going to grow on it right so bad the different salt levels shift

speed it with fermentation take place any further fermentation past update the saltless in the fermentation and also shift the balance of what's going to be growing on in a related question about a pickled peppers pickled peppers Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick measurement get with your like fruit measurements here A peck is a half bushel

dear David Sasha Jack and Joe although Jack doesn't care enough about you Marty from Eagle Rock to show up and listen to question at Dutch I'm just messing around and recipes on the web to get everything from 2.5% to 10% salt by weight I went with 4% of that the concentration I use for pickle brine soda 3 Kg of salt as well as a leader of 4% Brian but I got to thinking that because the Chili's don't have much water weight in them that this match is Mash is way more salty than my pickle brine so I'm afraid I might have screwed myself I love that when people say stuff like that I said all the time cuz it's true most of time I had screwed myself what is the optimal salinity for lacto-fermentation how can you best measure a given to the various vegetables have their differing water content and how long would you age to stop the mcelhaney company ages their stuff for 3 years but I know the fermentation will be over in a couple of weeks

best Marine Eagle phone number there is done and then there's done right so things that are fundamentally done in a short amount of time still had aging effects that take place over long over longer periods of time and the mcelhaney's I've never been to Avery Island where they make Tabasco but apparently the whole place reeks of freaking Tabasco ever been down there know my wife went and cuz you know she grew up a part of her life in Louisiana she could have been like it's so weird like the mcelhaney's like had like it it's Weird Al go someday salinity write different products have different Optimist Lenny's I did look up this though unless the Thai bird Chiles have fundamentally a lot less water than something like a bell pepper I will look them cow and cow it's kind of a good website Culpeper Culpeper that sounds., another article that looked say that two solids content of a pepper

is pretty low so for 32 tons of 32.7 tons of jalapeno only contain 2.6 tons of dry matter which means that the balance it is it's well over 90% water I know now you could be having a lot of stems because they're Thai bird Chiles if it's been with you stems them or not the stem Drive is going to hell or high water content but you probably dealing with something has a fairly high water content so I wouldn't worry about it from that point however you know a lot of people will use a four or five percent brine without adding extra salt to make up for it and then what they're actually shooting for is like a two and a half percent Brian once everything is done so it's you know it's very confusing most recipes just give a brine string and they don't do the calculations to figure out what the actual finished salinity is going to be after everything it is is you know and I do know that people pickling bell peppers

a higher with air holes are not going to be chopped up they prefer a higher initial assault level to kill or to prevent endogenous overs like on the paper already strains that they don't want from lip reading before the permutation really starts but you can get rid of that by just a quick glance right and then going with a lower salt situation but the Thai chilies aren't that big anyway so I'm thinking you would probably wouldn't need super high salt concentration with exception if you don't break the skin that all is going to be hard for a dependent rate the Skins cuz the skins on those things that can be kind of a pain in the butt sometimes say yes or no to my I guess the long and short of it is yeah you use in the series screw yourself it's not absurdly high because those are so freaking hot and how much can you really eat anyway you know in our ass like you're not going to stop because how many Thai bird chilies can you sit there until I mean I used to train myself to eat Habaneros just to be a jerk and tell my wife no longer kiss me when she came home from work because my Lyft Woodburn

I'm out right so it's not like I'm saying that I can't take hot foods while I haven't been trained in spend several decades since I really claim myself Harcourt even in my Prime it's like you can eat you can eat Thai bird you know that the tide but but you know you not going to eat so much that you can't be like man that's all. I can't have anymore I can't stand it because of the salt you don't need it supposed to the capsicum but I did also look up some other stuff in your question what is the optimum range and all the papers that look that said there is no Optimum range depends on what you want so I looked up an article you can get on the internet from Geneva from Geneva's Agricultural Extension which I love I love they've been so many awesome things like that some day I'm able to do but I won't because it won't do it but alcohol show on the history of the green agriculture extension and what they've done for agriculture in the great state of New York but article athlete titled

sauerkraut sauerkraut you know they want to get very very small that like Lolo salt concentration so they were they were dealing with between one and a half or two and a half and I 1916 when they came out they wanted sauerkraut to be between 2% and 3% NaCl right that was their rule between two and three although least I didn't hear one that we're lower and once it were higher the problem with low salt if you go to low there's a couple things that are wrong with the two when you go to low things tend to grow that can make vegetables mushy and so you if you look at it you want a certain level of salt that makes things much easier to prevent you from getting mushy and you can also add things like calcium in a divalent the divalent cations to help that swell or you saw that is high in calcium magnesium and. But you want to add

turn level assault so that you know they don't go mushy on things like sauerkraut but not so much salt is too salty to eat another article called kinetic growth parameters are different Emilio lytic and nanami lo Leduc alecto bacillus trades under various salts and pH conditions by m s Rau said that 4% a good number all-around number but that's good sauerkraut. Be way too high for percent sauerkraut people that are you crazy that's interesting fact in the old days there was a phenomenon where they would they would take the Kraut salted and throw it into giant bats and when they threw in the giant that somehow the actual the compression of the Scabbard hitting inside of that attacking in would cause there to be a low salt concentration in the middle and high salt concentration on the outside so in the low salt concentrations were there wasn't enough salt you would get mushy sauerkraut and when the salt concentration was too high the the

growth of lactobacillus a strange that they have in in sauerkraut which I forget what they are some some what kind of stock thing I think they they don't grow fast enough to compete or cause a yeast this yeast makes pink sauerkraut right they use for going doesn't spoil its but you'll get the situation is giant bass like several tons of sauerkraut where the center of its going to be mushy and the outsides going to be paint but the overall salt level was right in red paint Crowd by mistake people make red crowd on purpose anyway and you know go read but he's like he's very much in there in the realm of man don't worry about it you know what I mean like it's going to work just taste it and see how it's going it's going to work. You know it's if it's long as you are better than you know 2% salt you know you going to be it's going to be gravy it's just a question of then what organoleptic Lee what's going to happen and increase in the sea

slow your fermentation and shifts the different species that are going to be going on if I hope this is the correct email it is I have a lot of sodium hydroxide bees from making pretzels and I was wondering if I could use these being some how to make ramen noodles I've previously made alkaline noodles using the recipe from Lucky Peach I was thinking that I can substitute the bake soda is sodium carbonate fake sodium bicarbonate with sodium hydroxide bees I would normally just test it myself but a lot of sources I read online say that is dangerous to consume sodium hydroxide so I wanted to get professional opinion thanks love the show Polly by I'm assuming you've already done this label the hell out of that container take label the top of the container label the side of the container and draw skull and crossbones all over that as a container I don't know whether I've haven't talked all this in a long time but I swear I was moving stuff out

divide the lab at the front corner and when we were moving from the FCI to our new place and someone said hey what's this and show me a quart container right and I was like I don't know and I get my finger in it to taste it put it on my tongue which I'll never do again and it was lie because it was the one container stuff we keep around in the kitchen that is horrific be dangerous and it melted a huge hole in my tongue eventually grew back so be careful with it but used me and you ate it when it's in pretzels and small amounts of lye are in fact fine to use you just have to get the pH right I didn't have time to look up the numbers to substitute the how many grams of Lie to add to get the same pH as you did with sodium carbonate I will say this they both have the same cation sodium so you're not dealing with switching A cation out so it's not that it's probably better than what I'm saying here is probably going to work right you know most of the effects

aan mostly affects in noodles from using can Sway and other basic things are I believe strictly pH dependent it's not plus I got to remember to look up exactly what Sam X way which which bases are used but if you're using a sodium based ink for a Canon anyway you're not going to have any divalent cation for instance calcium effects like you would like it's important it's not there different effects when you use calcium-based bases like like calcium hydroxide you know slitting a lot pickling line when you do things like next Malaysian because the calcium has some effect on on certain structure depending on what you're doing but but in this case I think you're going to be fine it's just a question of making sure that you don't make it way too alkaline I've Canino you consume so you might hurt me and you you put it in pretzels if it's going to be fine just don't use too much and look up how to substitute to get the proper pH if I had time I would look it up for you but I didn't get a chance

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welcome back to cook radio centrica things to talk about any any any drives any anything or we are out of the fundraising season what's going on here season is over but just be on the lookout for some new pieces that we're going to be putting out putting out like 3 to 5 minutes segments best Subs coming up soon so you know check out the homepage Heritage Radio Network. A word she want to tell us about the whole new the new homepage is described this already but it will be unveiled shortly and you're going to see this whole new format with different radio spots about you know Health pleasure so could be a little bit more newsie but still with all the programs that you love me again

call tofu and then there's the Bland watery kind you come across and supermarkets are they probably don't do a good job making it and be they just soak the hell out of it and water but I'm making Farmington Square I don't believe there is mention how to go about making a good tofu so how do you make a tofu and what are the primary differences what are some helpful reference is being on the web or in print that you can recommend and also do you know of any places when we go for some good tofu experience well I don't I didn't mean if your in Korean I'm sure you can get some amazing tofu I really kind of like you know Korean kind of cloud tofu soup so there's a place here in New York that does it that I like but you know you know you're in the kind of the motherland of that of that kind of a situation and that's really the only tofu restaurant I go to here in New York do you go to a you ever go to the tofu restaurant

I seem to remember I've had good home to make tofu in restaurant downtown remember remember where they tell me the main the main thing is when you make it yourself a you get to choose with texture you want but be I never ever put it in water ride so after it you know after you do the Kurds and you can you label them and you do whatever level of pressing or not pressing depending on how soft you want it that's it for me right so it still has some of the way and in there which I like and I have him like all of the other flavors of soy which I actually happen to like haven't been leached out by having a big bucket of water for a long time I don't you know so dead to me like that's the main that's the main difference so you know the reference that I always give its kind of outdated there's a book I want to get that I don't have called at Asian tofu discover the best make your own and cook it at home by Andrea Nguyen I don't have this book and gets good ratings on Amazon it's definitely one of the books on my list of things to get but you know

I first started making tofu I don't know like 89 17 years ago or something I guess maybe 15 years and a book that I used was kind of the only book at the time and English called The Book of tofu by William shurtleff and Akiko ADI I think it's how you pronounce your name and your goal and I have I think it's called the soyuz to return like this in California and if they're still going strong even though I think they wrote the book and like 1980 Something is their goal is to save the world through better protein consumption in Neosho way they wrote a book a famous book on soy a famous book on me so and I believe they have a couple of their famous one thing you need to go by there book because it's

not that expensive and you need to own it but there's a bunch of different versions of it on the on the web to buy I'm not sure if it's still in print or not you want to make sure you don't get the mass Market paperbacks because the mass Market paperback is the recipes are hacked up in a weird way that makes it impossible you want to get the larger format paperback is good and a hardcover including the hardcover one where they found the book of miso and the Book of tofu together is fine smaller Mass Market one at least they Edition that I own and I've only like four cop is this book anyway she's gone somebody else name is Statue of ask for it and then make sure you get the right one

the other thing is is that I don't really follow his his Topher works like this you make you get your soy beans be soaked them you got to suck them for the right amount of time then you blend them with different amounts of hot water if you change the temperature paint how you want to do it you blend the hell out of it right and then that's the term me how thick your soy milk is change the thickness of soy milk depending on what you want to remember my specific specs but I use fundamentally the exact water specs that are in their tofu book in shirtless Toca Toca book then you boil it for a certain amount of time I remember this is a messy part because it will boil over in about Travis because you have to inactivate certain anti-nutrients in the in the soy even take it and you store in a coagulant right now traditional Japanese coagulant would be nigari which is the sauce left over from a bittern is another word for it is the salts left over from the production of sea salt or sea salt primarily sodium chloride and then the

turn the nigari leftover primarily magnesium Kosmos other salt in those are the ones that you use for tofu now I'm at the time didn't have an access apply this crap so I just went to the Duane Reade which is our local pharmacy here although start what you you hate play me to hate CVS and Rite Aid Epsom salts right and epsom salts is what is it that might be magnesium chloride I got to look it up but you don't want to use too much epsom salt so it'll it'll make the tofu run through you if you know what I mean but but but could it slacks it if not the same but a small amount of Epsom salt is stirred in

the the cations the internet Epsom salt cause that tofu to coagulate break you carefully move it around to get the to get the accursed coagulate without beating up too much and you laid all the cards out extremely gently into a container and you either press it down with weights if you want it firm or not let it go and that's that's it so you know you can use gypsum which is I believe calcium sulfate but I got to look it up there before you can use a dip sandwiches Chinese kind of traditional you can use nagari which kind of Japanese traditional he claims you can use sea water although I've never had luck doing it and I know you can use epsom salts because that's when I use most often but it's very simple to do and definitely worthwhile don't soak the hell out of and water which is how you ruined that stuff

I want some pussy so good I've never been pressed it's just like the clouds and tofu after scratching it with ladle out and put in the soup I don't know what it's called in Korean though I figured out I'll ask I'll ask someone else okay Matt rights and I need to make a no sugar added sorbet for infants I'd like to make a sour lemon sorbet how would I go about that some online research turned up some vague ideas like using gelatin alcohol guar gum and some other things to stop it from freezing solid but I haven't found anything concrete any ideas okay so all of those things yet none of those things are going to do exactly what you want sugar to do

so question Matt is do you want to have no sugar for a flavor or is it because there is a dietary restriction fault

alcohol is going to lower the freezing point of your of your of your product straight up it will but if you've ever tried to freeze high-alcohol stuff it doesn't it doesn't modify the texture in the same way that sugar does soda product it like is going to be it's not going to have the same texture as if it was done with now if you use alcohol and then maybe I had some something like a stabilizer to make a gummy like a gelatin or Gwar then maybe you can get it approximating what a real real survey is going to be but never going to be quite the sake of sugar I know has very good texturizing properties now

what you can do if you want it to be very fairly unsweet is to use a much lower sweetening power sugar okay now I haven't actually had him use that much Paul liebrandt I don't know if you still use that used to use a product called light test I don't even know if it's still available but it's a sugar that has absolute it's a sugar substitute I forgot how they make it has absolutely no sweetness it's dead on sweet but you can get glucose syrups that are fairly low and sweetness very very low sweetness that have a high solids content and have good water binding capacity which is what you want here you wanted Jack the solids you want to find some of the water and you want to decrease the freezing point of the liquid so if you if you were to use like some alcohol maybe maybe at some Gala but then use you know like a very low D E S Equipment like 42 or lower glucose

syrup which has a pair of the Lodi that's not sweet you can get a very unsweet thing if no one would recognize it as being a sweet like a sweet dessert thing but you you can you know you can not

not have problems of having a bad texter so you know Neal's Used to do at Aqua Vitae a goat cheese ice cream that was I believe he's like a 42 d e or glucose syrup in conjunction with a locust bean gum and the end they like those two things together could get the texture that you want even though the sugar level is somewhat reduced and that thing was not sweet at all it tasted like like goat cheese you know I'm saying so I think you want to go something something like that you're going to need a jacket salad special out of sorbet we don't have like milk proteins and things like that to round it up any questions any admission last time I got them all its Labor Day Christian from Michigan Right send you could clarify a few things for me use low temperature cooking and sous-vide as

different descriptions of cooking methods and I'm curious as to how you make the distinction is it strictly that under vacuum constitutes sous-vide while everything else is low temp

yes I mean look so very simply sous-vide means in a vacuum so sous vide techniques include cooking techniques they include preservation techniques they include you know infusion techniques texture modification techniques anything that involves a vacuum is sous-vide it was not mean in vacuum bags using a vacuum machine sewing vacuum distillation they don't really consider a sous-vide technique under vacuum low temperature right is anytime you're controlling the temperature that you're cooking with so accurately that you heard that they're cooking medium Weatherby oil or water or moist air is very close to temperature you want to cook too so low temperature requires very accurate temperature control and environment like oil water or humidity air that can accurately transmit temperature right now

doesn't work because you can't control the temperature of the products of cooking because with dryer you get evaporative cooling right can't control it so you can't do low temperature cooking that way low temperature temperature control in bacterial sous-vide cooking you could use waiwaiole the unregulated heat Source ride you can use boiling water which is actually is regulated Pennsbury High or any temperature in between you don't need to cook it to the temperature you want to fucking product to a very very different now vacuum bagging sous vide is very useful technique for doing low temperature cooking but many things that you cook low temperature you don't cook in a vacuum bag friends are not cooked in a vacuum bag you can do old style confit in a Combi oven low Temp and not other I prefer, a comfy traditional temperatures without a vacuum bag and the reason to separate the two is not just because they are different is because there are especially in professional professional arena is there are

rules that pertain to using modified atmosphere packaging because when you move oxygen you increase the risk for growing an aerobics spore-forming bacteria like botulism and that that and prevent spoilage bacteria from letting you know things are going south so in a professional environment there's all kinds of rules when you're using modified atmosphere packaging and sous-vide the donut chain when you're using a low temperature cooking so I like to maintain a bright-line just because you know the years I was training sheftu this thing it was very important that they make that distinction because it could be a big problem when the health inspector comes in and they don't know how to accurately talk about the difference between modified atmosphere which has the extra theoretically the extra risks of having low oxygen vs. low temperature which doesn't necessarily have those risks so you know that's very important in the other thing is is that they're just freaking different so I want you should think of that

process of being the vacuum process and all the things that pertain to the vacuum process and you to think of the cooking process as the cooking process and all the things that a team from cooking there is not the same you know any second question talk about creating fat powder who generally talk about liquid oils or at least rendered fat aside from using avocado oil is there enough fat or method manipulation in an avocado to turn it into the powder from the fruit itself avocado oil axle out of the richness and fruit flavor that I'm looking to achieve yes it does a Thanksgiving liner fix on my long commutes to and from work I'm off and taking notes illegally on my phone while driving don't do that don't do that don't do that while the real gems of information pop-up Long Live nerds Christian from Michigan PS I can relate your travel stories with regards to knives and electronics I've given a few workshops on Arduino in Canada and always end up at Customs fighting deportation as I explained away microcontroller board zweiers an exacto knife as well covered in tattoos and looking scruffy Funtime yeah I've had some airport situation

avocado when you're making powders from fat are you can do solid fats solid fats or liquid fat right you're using witch called tapioca a specific type of tapioca maltodextrin call Dennis orbit and serve it with a hammer and I'm at my brain is fried but it is made of the national start Corporation and specifically it is a bulking agent that's very very low bulk density right now all starches I think I think about this button starches have a helix form in the outside of the starch is a hydrophilic and the inside of the star she looks is lipophilic likes fast which means that fast can insert themselves on the inside of the of this Helix right so what happens is you take this thing has an extremely low bulk density the fat get stored on the inside of the of these Hela C is for the ends orbit and because there's no water in the system the it maintains some of its higher both ends

me and you can make powders out of fat that's how I'm zorbit works as soon as you add water to and your bed so if I hand you a pound of ends orbit right it's like a giant Cube because it weighs almost nothing so when you and and even when you add oil you reduce its its you increase its bulk density dramatically decrease is inside dramatically the absorbent

the minute you add any liquid to ends orbit at all it starts like watering out right me and you said it's like the whole point of it is that when you make these oil powders you put it in your mouth and sore but goes away and you're left with the oil right so the question is how much water is there in avocado and I think there's a substantial amount of water in an avocado substantial amount of oil but also substantial amount of water and so my feeling is that the water content of the avocado is going to be too high to is going to be too high to make a powder with into orbit unless you use a boat ton of it but your results May Vary got to find out we'll find out I'm what are you talkin about but I would be I would be careful I don't think there's much too much water in an avocado get to that by speaking of modernist technique I forgot the back on tofu back when I was experimenting

tofu Miss prior to this explosion that took place like 4 or 5 years ago or people started making tofu everything I tested years ago trying to make that peanut tofu which is okay, I saw a different kind of a kind of tofu but I believe in Madras Cuisine there's a bunch of interesting different kinds of tofu like other leg wound cards so go look at that butt for tofu information for non-standard tofu information we need to answer the fat powder thing I miss any of your questions because I think I can actually get the mall today yes alright we got one last question coming in


James on from Bitterroot Montana on sturgeon and I'm liking this one ready for this Sterling by the way and I saw you at your at your the half of you that is Russia Ukrainian enjoys sturgeon answering it I was looking at the spine and notice how soft the tissue was inside I cut off two chunks split one open lengthwise and left the other one holds salt oil and Anna when they came out the one that have been split resembled a lobster tail bursting with soft white meat soft as a pillow and absolutely delicious I'm ready to ask if there are any health risks involved that you can think of her clients I feel fine I was thinking of anything or long-term you can never really consumed all that much of it the yield was poor also any ideas for

applications or experiments you could think of that would be fun to try with this ingredient James Roundy from Bitterroot Montana there's a great question first of all

I had no idea sturgeon paddlefish and a group of other fish that are out there are kind of like living dinosaurs there's an old old style fish and in fact there you know one of the few few things out there that don't have a normal spinal cord like most fish have they haven't called a notochord right because they're super primitive some people who fish for certain of these things and I think I've also like cold can stuff I don't know if you can fish with his calling Dino fish so I had no inclination that there might be a possible problem with a spinal cord in fact not only that in in in Russia there's a well where you know they they get that the sturgeon from the Caspian to make caviar there's a well-known delicacy called the sigue that is the dried spinal cord of sturgeon router spot it's not a spine

Sydney notochord dried notochord of sturgeon so I read about this I believe in the time life books I think I read about them in the Russian one of the stomach is a want to try it and Mustachio an eye in vain tried to locate some we bought some sturgeon hope that we can get some spine out of it and they'd already removed it so we couldn't get anything out of it but this is it was a huge delicacy it was it was what they would do is squeeze all of them fluffy stuff out of the middle that you're talking about and then they would try it and then they would chop it up Recaps all dried up reconstitute and use it and fancy soups and the one piece of information to all of the internet about it now that was only be searched before was that it was a part of the last meal served on the Titanic one of the suits that is one of the last meals in first class had this had this ingredient in it

do you want to be a little bit about it but you can go to the animal food resources OK Google book the animal food resources of different nations with mentions of some of the special day these of various people derive from the Animal Kingdom by Peter Lund Simmons from the 1880s and available on the Google box and at first I thought was a really Charming book because it also has a better description of the rice bird the Bobolink and how it was used in the US and its similarity to ortolan best description I've read of it so far including the MKT assistant which another great book I read from the 1800 or Carolina Rice Kitchen in Translation by Hess or not translation but my point is interesting book until like until the first chapter is on cannibalism in Airbus he's busting out so much hardcore racism I know it's the 1800s and everything but just makes it so hard so it starts with saying that luckily for us and when he says us of course he means you know white European stock luckily for us

cannibals don't find the flash of white tasty and I'm not I can't even bring myself to say like who who are seen as being the case he wants by chest it's just terrible but good good description of things like that that the singer now so yes sturgeon notochord is and by the way a star as we never got to see it because now there's videos of it on YouTube people pulling it out yet and it's like as big around as like what what what shape what what am I making her maybe it's like half inch across like a jump rope jump rope it's it's long and here's here's how you get it out here's how you get the cord out so the question is why would you think that this is bad but then you go online and everyone says that there's all these kind of like Tales of How It's toxic how if you cut it it'll ruin the meat and all this other stuff I found a very old and I forgot to put the link on a very old

article from a university on closely related fix the paddlefish and cleaning it the issue is this in Sturgeon meat and a paddlefish meet you want the white part of the meat and the blood anything has blood on it anything that is connected with the kind of yellowish stuff around the spine or the blood that's close to the skin surface anything it's not that white meat you'd be tested by the fishermen I get it because they say it tastes incredibly fishy and that no one will like it so there's every attempt is made to bleed out a sturgeon or a paddlefish as soon as is humanly possible and to get as much of the blood out and the old school people don't say that the stuff is toxic what they say is that you remove the spinal cord to allow the fish to bleed more effectively and to get more of the blood to drain out and here's how you do it you take the tail

and you cut around the tail right so you cut around the tail without cutting through this notochord was like this hard rope right but almost all the way around it to it then at some people disagree on whether or not you also need to make a mark to cut it too had to sever of the top people disagree on this here's the part that stars going to like you grab the whole fish with your huge cuz there's a big and you grab a tail and you go crack crack like 90° each way and you crack the connections and then you use the tale as a handle and you pull on it and you can see the notochord ripping out of the back of the fish and it comes out like this weird like piece of intestine with little likelihood of little bit but it comes out white so it doesn't have the the blood in it and although I saw a guy do it on a paddle fishing with a bloody mess but you pull it out right and that was done to increase the speed at which you get the blood out the modern sturgeon filling technique that I saw

turn these guys in Oregon there super fast and they said they don't deal with the spinal cord on fact that this one guy doesn't even end up getting it he discussed the falaise off without ever getting it and then just throw the whole head and the tail in but he's missing out on taking the this spinal cord now again I don't know about the group in the in the middle and there are some people who are using extracts of sturgeon notochord for medical purposes but I didn't get a chance to weigh to the patents on that but spinal cord is used in the past is a very high-end food stuff and everything I can read says it's removal the spinal cord was just a a technique to make sure that you get the blood out to increase the quality of the me because nobody likes fishy tasting sturgeon and I encourage everyone to go look at the crazy videos of people pulling McNelis I don't want to hear anything there are varieties of sturgeon out there they can be responsibly farmed are controlled by Fisheries so I'm not advocating taking you know a beautiful amazing face that's close to extinction and overfishing anymore that we're not but but

some of these crazy videos of people pulling a notochord out of a paddlefish and and surgeons it's bananas

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