Cooking Issues Transcript

Episode 130: Washing Dishes & Fruit Sex

this is Chris Young co-author of modernist cuisine and co-founder of we've just launched a free course on spherification that's quick and to-the-point it teaches the fundamentals and then reveals the details the best chefs use to create amazing dishes that border on culinary Alchemy sign up now at you were listening to Heritage Radio Network broadcasting live from Bushwick Brooklyn do you like this program is it Heritage Radio Network. Org but thousands more


cooking issues I wish you show she can be the cookies issues maybe we can get her to guess how this one time just do cookies issues anything interesting I had to go with nothing really remember the people who haven't heard from you since last week you don't think people how many years we've done the show Jag

I'm going on like The Fray. Write them like that 3 years nostalgic still has not figured out that the people who are hearing this don't hang out with us all the time we are right why I haven't done anything interesting to the last time you spoke of you kind of said what about you Jack and Joe and me Anthony rules I'm going to Bonnaroo with Heritage Radio and Roberto's on Wednesday a pizza party they're interesting actually last Tuesday right after the Radio Show in the evening Heritage Radio had his first ever all hosts meeting right jack all hose to be nice and you know maybe maybe after the first break maybe Jack can save some of the changes that are going to be happening on on our find network of the next over the next year or so right what's fun stuff

well I'm covering for Jack while he goes to Bonnaroo so so so not so much so you're if you're going to be

all right last week we had a question about that I wasn't prepared to answer about phosphates and dishwashing detergent soap for those of you that don't know a couple of years ago a bunch of states and then I think probably the federal government said you know what you're going to have to reduce the amount of phosphates or eliminate phosphates in detergents like laundry detergent now the big one hasn't cried but it it's it's it's either called its trisodium phosphate but it's also like you know sodium tripolyphosphate is sodium so it's either like you know tsp STP STP and what they are

is just awesome detergent awesome it from it so lots of things like that though right so lots of things are amazing at what they do but cause problems for infant asbestos asbestos freaking amazing insulator completely dimensionally stable in a really fireproof awesome from a technical standpoint also kills you know so you know you can't you can't have it both ways you can't have the the awesome fire retardant mix and also live turns out but to the phosphates it's not quite as bad as that it's not just going to kill you the issue with phosphate and the reason that they were removed is because according to a bunch of research one of the limiting factors in algebra growth in in water bodies is a free phosphorus and so if you dump a lot of extra phosphorus into the ground water that seeps its way into you know rivers and lakes

greens and whatnot you'll get huge owls will blooms it'll choke choke out the the life in there so that's why they say to get rid of the phosphates now

phosphates are introduced into detergent I think According to some of the research I do when I was poking around fairly soon after World War II and so what are they what are they do according to Cascade who is Cascade dishwashing people who this is what they say the phosphates do seem to buy into these types of these types of food together and eating grease removal they also help control water hardness and balances bended soils with in the wash water so that they did not redistribute onto the plates to the network nutshell there like what what tells you is at phosphate specifically this kind of phosphate trisodium phosphate tsp or STP we're going to call it or freaking amazing cuz they do a bunch of different things first of all they do what's called chelate and sequestered calcium ions and other metal ions what those things do it if you don't do that is they re deposit

on your on your stuff and make a film also that disgusting film young stars that disgusting film to get around a bathtub calcium stuff but not different deposits right they can also combined with the soap right and then making sorry. And also first of all like molecules like calcium binding with your soap in your surfactant your detergent they prevent that detergent for doing the job on the dirt right so they check you that way and I think they can also kind of cause those things to deposit into that awful films comes. Right trisodium phosphate is first of all it's basic and alkaline so automatically it helps break up organic organic soil organic soils including the stuffing dishwashing most of it is broken down well by alkaline think basic things that break down proteins and fat when I tell which is why they're awesome McPhee clock in Greece in in a thing about drains like liquid plumber right so they're awesome at that they also their basic they also

belated sequester out calcium and other ions it that shaft you and so they're call what they're doing builders in the trade and so they do the phosphates that fast do a number of different things that is very hard for one thing to replace it to get to fix so what are they adding to it nowadays they're adding sodium carbonate so sodium carbonate time to beat the hell out of baking soda in a turn from bicarbonate and carbonate they had this it's extremely alkalyn right so it does some of the stuff that that the phosphates did problem with it is is that the stuff I'm pretty sure from from The Young noodling around that's the stuff with the new detergent it's turning your aluminum pots and pans all black and disgusting so the reason why your pots your aluminum stuff is getting destroyed in the dishwasher now is because of things like sodium carbonate the other thing one of the other things they had is sodium percarbonate

percarbonate is added in that is the main one of the main ingredients in OxiClean because it when you added to water it if your grades and turns into hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate so then that also is turning your aluminum pots gray and disgusting but it's got the OxiClean stuff which is supposed to make up for some of the lack of bleach and cleaning power when I took out the phosphates they are they also add sodium citrate macchina we use in cooking all the time oh by the way I also the phosphates the same reason we use them in in cooking they act as kind of emulsifying salt which is also good at finding the grease and causing it for me depositing they also have to add sodium silicate which is actually not so used to look at it say it's a specialized medicine look at that they use along with modified polyacrylate which is deposition agent the same crap that using diapers size to make it in absorb all the stuff but that's up to no different formula

gotten it right yet but they are apparently working on it but by all accounts you know they switch because they didn't want to make a bunch of different regions for all over the country but they haven't gotten a hundred percent right now but there is there's good news and bad news if there's a whole group of people who do not believe the stuff hurts the environment and if you are one of those people you can go on the other side too many times by the way to break down proteins before the stuff I start to become a police officer if you use cold water pets you can go on Amazon and order boxes of trisodium phosphate tsp is going to run you around $8 a pound if you order the seven brand brand and if you ordered it that's it that's Amazon Prime there's another brand called wild app there famous people but they make a tsp that you can get I think you can still buy a Home Depot because it's still used in pressure washing the sides of buildings prior to painting so what you can do is just like add a you know add a teaspoon of that to to your regular detergent and that should

phosphorus up the stuff and bring back some of the old goodness of phosphorus of course you might be shafting me environment what do you think's does go out after this I have a meeting but she's going to go to the Frac she's going to go Frac some stuff if you have a car online to make the stuff work eventually color you're on the air

all right everybody from Oregon and if we had the same problem with all the aluminum pans by the way just to go back for a second and you can also buy industrial industrial dishwashing stuff can still have the phosphate and so you so you can get it that's it that's a good they will ruin the aluminum somewhat but just not as badly as the new ones to have the deal is that the sodium carbonate and things like it what they do is they eat away the protective oxide surface on the aluminum and then allowed to react with the water more so that that that that was going on so quickly before you go to work where in Oregon are you

where in Oregon are you recently but I still have not made it to Corvallis yet which is my dream to go to Corvallis during Barry season but you got a question for me

I do it's about ice cream a friend of mine owns and ice cream shop here in Portland and we are having a discussion about making about alley in and folding in sea salt to get crunch of sea salt right but we run into the problem of osmosis and the sea salt stop melting into the mix and Frozen base itself

how to react with multi dextrin or emulsifying in some sort of fat but we haven't had the chance or the money or the time is sickly to wonder if you had any ideas on how something like that might work if it's possible at all well I mean if you had enough time I'm sure it's possible what salt is contacting a water-based liquid you're going to get your going to get salt melting it's got It's just going to happen right so you know you're on the right track you have to protect the salt with something that is insoluble in in water so for instance you can chocolate coat to salt

another name for you cuz you don't have to use chocolate shop that you could use another solid fat like cocoa butter or something like that and coat the salt so if you were to take like a like a panic attack and I'm sure you could pan mold and crystals with cocoa butter and then fold them into your ice cream as long as there's no route for the water to enter a meeting won't last forever but it'll last a lot longer than you have now otherwise you're going to have to do something you know fairly sophisticated like coat it with another water inside of a product like for instance corn saying but the problem with corns acorns Hands Up A protein that soluble in alcohol but not in water so you would dissolve the Zane in high proof ethanol Tulsa salt and it won't dissolve the salt out and then you let that alcohol flash off when you get a coating around the salt I don't know how completely in permeable the same as but it's used as confectionery coating at times to prevent moisture migration right but I don't know how long it's going to last like a third choice be the third choice would be

you know you could use what's called an outfit ending emulsifier and an oil and you mix them and then as they as they start drying out they should form a film around the outside of the cell be going to need some sort of moisture impermeable thing I mean that the best I mean the best thing I can think of is sling choke chocolate is quite thick cocoa butter is fairly thin when it melts so you might be able to get a constantly turning thing of cocoa butter and get a very thin coating I'm not sure

you know I mean or like just make it into like blocks of sugar and and I'm sorry salt and something like like a white chocolate or cocoa butter some sort of solid fat and then to shatter it grind it into smaller pieces some of the pieces will be totally protected and others won't you'll get some of the crunch from the chocolate pieces anyway but inside of that you'll get crystal in front I don't know the way of preserving individual saw crystal said they're not going to melt out though send me this make any sense

it makes amazing some Jeff and let us know how it work okay I will, I am actually heading down to the pear Orchard the summer I would love to go this summer I'm going to try to make it happen I was going to go to the Miami to do mangoes again this year and it turns out it's been a horrible mango crop in Miami are the Paris looking okay over there in Oregon

they're coming out pretty strong right now sweet Corvallis

Macy's like she doesn't want to go I'm going to go up to all right cool so I'll be over there if we're going to do it works so we had a question from James last week about making raspberry and other fruit flavor gin no no. I enjoy the show and I've gotten through the archives so I'm up-to-date enough to ask a question by the way people

to not feel obliged to listen to everything that we have said before you ask a question right strawberry jam recipe from cooking issues blog with a slight modification from changing from strawberries to frozen raspberries it not being the season for fresh berries and easier to get frozen raspberries turned out delicious the end product is a bit cloudy do to my over squeezing of the jail but this settles out nicely on the sitting alongside this I tried classic and fusion technique just putting raspberries into the gym and letting it sit and an isi raspberry gin infusion each technique is a gene which is similarly clarified after letting the I assign a girl wants it to set up an out why foolishly didn't keep the gender raspberry ratio constant for these tests I would imagine that I can adjust this ratio to match the color and flavor profile of these techniques do the new techniques to provide an improved yield less berries give me a stronger better flavor and more rapid processing if so what is a good use for the agar clarification

Call of Duty to get to clarify play some classic infusions won't exactly benefit of clarification techniques is that when you do it you know you blend the fruit and the and the product then so you get a very fast you know mingling of the berry and the the the gym so that the issue is your yield is not going to be as high so you're going to lose a product mean I do it in a centrifuge luckily the enzyme I use pectin X Ultra sp-l when I do clarification is fairly alcohol and sensitive so you can you can blend things directly like that with the enzyme the enzyme breaks down the pectins and when we spend it out I would recommend even if you're doing regular agar clarification go on modernist Pantry. Com buy some pectinex Ultra sp-l to break down the pectins in your slurry before you said it with agar you will increase your yield by

80% at least because it sent it out so and on regular infusions you just sitting a long time making off of you two can take you know days weeks depending on how strong infusion is you know but again it is it's valid I tend to you know what I'm doing infusions and I want them rapidly it's either because I don't have time or because I feel that the quality of the flavor is going to change as it sits for a long long time strawberry gin for instance when I make strawberry gin very fresh strawberry gin taste different from strawberry gin it's been sitting around for a long time so that there is changes that take place in it as it sits and so sometimes those changes are good sometimes they're bad sometimes they're just different so when I want very fresh flavors I'll do is I or I'll do what you do I assign on berries you want strawberries anywhere you want a slice of very thin so you get rapid rapid penetration raspberries is not such it's such a big deal if you want to do raspberries with

more traditional technique is do a pretreat of The Raspberries with pectin methyl Ester a switch is Novo shape I think modernist pantry is carrying that now that will keep the flesh intact over long maceration periods and then put a lot of the raspberries in and it'll even out and then both the raspberry should be good and the and the liquor should be good most the time it's either one's good the other day but not both New York and was awesome option burners move into or removing a coffee shop from one to the other and the other space is a little smaller if you don't have a gas stove

getting an induction burner me and lie for you know making cigarettes and we also make a little bit of ice cream there so I just wondering if there's anything I should be looking out for other than size of them there they're great right we got to make sure you have the correct power which I'm assuming you do you have to figure out how you want your station set up so that induction burners if you're getting Portables removibles right they come as singles and I wouldn't bother getting the little home Gabby ones like some people try to use those in industrial settings but they kind of crap out on you sometimes and a lot of times you know when your professional stuff you don't want and the reason a crap out on you is because they don't have sufficient cooling circuits to run the thing hardcore and so if you try to overdrive them they they shut down in thermal overload they come back they don't die permanently

but that's kind of an irritating thing to have happened to you you know when you need to get a bunch of stuff out so I think that's the main difference between the relatively inexpensive home ones are the ones that are sold portable for catering that can plug into a regular 110 socket and the much bigger ones the only other of the bigger ones you know I really only had experience with that with the cooktek ones but your main choices are the following you can either get single induction Hobs they're obviously the most portable and I take the least electricity but they only take about one one pot at a time the other thing is you can get duels now the choice in duels is this they have front back duels and they have side side duels right so the advantage of a front back dual is that you can you can get you can get one and then you can get another one stick it right next to it and now you have like a four burner range and didn't get another one stick it right next to it and now you have six burners and they're all controlled from the front right which is it seemed

show me to be a pretty big Advantage but you know the guy that sound bar pad at 1 and they were having some problems with I don't know what his problem with that unit particular but the concept to me is very appealing because it allows you to make a choice now and not be shafted for later although nobody wants to cook front back if you only have to you know what I'm saying if you only have two you definitely want to cook side side but if you know you're eventually going to gang up for six of them then I pretty sure you want to go front back the other thing is is that even you know five six seven years ago when people were buying a commercial induction units they always broke always broke and that the breaking features were to two reasons one a cook would put a pot down very heavy on the glass surface and shatter it I saw more than 5 broken that way and then the other problem was is it everyone wanted the Holy Grail of Range Rover oven and if you do Range Rover oven especially with the electronics the way they had them you know years ago they always burned out it was like inevitable so

looking up but doesn't sound like you're going to have that problem cuz you're not going hot over you're not you're not going hot over hot so you're not going to have probably cooling issues if you want to make sure it does suck her stay ventilator so it's going to be a choice for you if what kind of configuration you want you. I mean right I wouldn't I would don't pay too much attention to I mean get are the powerful one but remember that wattage in an induction unit is not comparable to wattage in electrical unit of resistance heated range top ATS completely non-comparable because the the efficiencies are you know vastly different between the two so let me know how much smaller wattage is going to give you in an induction units going to give you the same output that you're going to get in terms of like actual heat in the pan as as as that you're the regular coil units in also you can't make a good conversion between BTUs and a gas range and

watch into the into the induction and I've had you know I've done races even with the crappy induction versus you know a fairly good gas and that the induction most of time is going to win because it directly heating the pan you get a first me and you're going to pay more electricity no doubt it but if you are going to have less ventilation requirement and it's going to take less HV AC load to cool your kitchen down should you clean your kitchen. What you probably will if you know probably will somewhat so you can you can win on those the only ones I really have experience with the on the commercial side are they cooked eggs and I think they work fine but you know I don't have a lot of experience with the with the other brands

is there like a ballpark if I wanted to I should be looking out for

get as high as you can right I mean you know that they should be you know the ones that run on 220 you should be able to get a couple kilowatts into them no problem right so the ones that you plug into a regular socket are limited to about 1500 watts that's about the limit that someone's going to want to suck out of a wall socket so a 15th what's 1.5 kilowatts so 1.5 kilowatt induction burner that crappy home models they are they work fairly well they're not as good as an industrial you know range like a jade or one of those things but they're pretty good. Pretty damn good but then so you could go to the next jump up like a 3 kilowatt burner I think they make three 1.5 kilowatts so that you're looking at grave if you haven't looked at the specs recently cuz I haven't bought one but if they have like a to kilowatt or three kilowatt you're probably looking at you no mucho power into the pan

I know they make Wok burner units that are like 4in 5 kilowatts and those suckers are nuts because they are nuts they're insane

let us let us know how it works out if you have any more questions about coming right back with cooking issues

is it once again that this is the meat Ballers vodka

this is Chris Young co-author of modernist cuisine and co-founder of we just lost our free short course on spherification a modernist technique that can imbue a flavorful liquid with the appearance of being solid a culinary illusion that's broken when the Spheres burst with flavor as they're eating our free course offers helpful step-by-step demonstrations of reverse Frozen reverse and directs verification we also explore the science behind spherification so that you can go beyond our recipes and create your own to surprise and Delight your family and friend and as always at chefsteps you get the support of a friendly community of experience cooks and world-class chefs who will answer your questions if you're interested in learning modernist cooking techniques if you want more from the creative team behind modernist cuisine and if like us you are a fan of Dave Arnold and cooking issues then we think you'll find a lot sign up now

yeah Jack yep. Well I was just I was just excited because I'm also a fan of Dave Arnold and cooking issues I'm glad the guys at chefsteps are too you know who else is a fan of Dave Arnold is everybody thought you said being a big first all staff I'll host MTG kind of awesome to get everybody in the same room but a lot of people a lot of the founding host the early hosts in the same room same time we just gave you the summer of food today which is a student submission program where people are giving us travel logs and recordings and musings from their summer of food which includes coverage on the shoes a farming sustainability and all sorts of things so that's really fun we're opening up a whole new post production division of the network lots and lots of new stuff and I would highly highly recommend every listen to cooking issues go to our website click on evolutionaries and there's an episode of Harold McGee where he tells his whole life story really in it in a very tightly edited

produced way I think it's very fascinating for all fans of modernist cooking it has debuted so it's there for your listening pleasure archived The evolutionary series on Heritage Radio network is right there in the home page as well he does he does he's damaged like his know some part of his arms he has to get it fixed I think from like you know repetitive not from punching Is Cook's apparently but from cooking I think he damaged his he was in sports has always wanted a sports injury and then you know how to make it happen through cooking full contact Sports guy but not like he's like a runner has been for a long time

did you know that did he mention that on the on the on the program to listen to find out I'll tell you something I hate running they say they get this endorphin rush from running the did they like it and then they like to keep running I've never felt that my life you guys anyone

no I used to I used to run track but it was never fun running around of my kids book. That's not the bar just got picked for the track team Nice Nice Sprites in Dear Miss hammer and nails I guess I'm the nail getting hit on the head by all of us are on the head with a hammer. Just just during the commercial break totally busted me because I was remember last week I said that like I was going to go to jail because he couldn't find out when my court date was to my bicycle ticket I was like I gave it to you where the hell is it and she's like you didn't give it to me you took it back and we had a big argument and I left my wallet guess what

he was there in my wallet right around so now she's going to now she's going to be shaking booty all day as a result of


do I get angry Jack and Joe do I get angry I guess I do but I don't like you know it's not serious right cartoon run frightened Dear Miss Hammer & Nails falling on Tom pictures questions about his kissing Kuhn rikon pressure cooker I can add that mine Circa 2009 has always done the same thing bought it while living in France and the customer service there isn't such that it was worth suffering suffering the follow-up and I follow up on it that I'd have to do to get it fixed so I just got used to it for what it's worth it's not the secondary / high pressure valve which is the one of the side but the pressure indicator valve itself I'm taking it apart cleaned it just on first you so it wasn't food contamination try to adjust a tightness of the bolt in the bottom of the pressure indicator used to be like a quiet temporarily by turning while it hissed or the valve

heard you're mine is cerca a long long time ago but I heard that can Recon was having some issues with QC that's quality control and having some issues with QC for a while but they had it fixed me I'd like to know how many people have this problem with doing recon is because one of my favorite things about it is that it doesn't leak mean still going to leak a lot less than you know some of the other brands like a Fagor that you know leak by Design but anyway yeah I do want that for up for my research in about apples Palm nerds he calls

dear Palm nerds my British girlfriend has been looking for Bramley apples in the United States there big tart baking apples super kinky triploid action of the referring to the number of sets of chromosomes so we are diploid we have two sets of chromosomes you know there's that when you have more than that it's called polyploidy 7 in the morning and said the but the problem is is that usually it's an even number in order that in order for the things not to be sterile so three sets triploid means that usually if your triploid your three sets of chromosomes you are sterile you the fruit tree not you the person Rockdale Farm is a massive fruit repository in the UK but I think you mentioned the us having a living Library baffles as well where is that and I have you

what makes him so interesting to the Brits and what other weird fruit sex can you share okay so the issue first of all of the day places in Geneva New York it when I forget how far is maybe like for 5 hours from New York City and it's the Geneva Apple expansion into extension of Cornell but the Apple repository is run by the United States government it's like Noah's Ark for apples and in dinner really like a lot of people there don't really stupid people care about the actual apples but the theory is if people don't think about it if you don't think about trees a lot but a lot of our major trees over the past hundred years have been wiped out by introduced a pathogens and Nutri pathogen so you know. Y'all a disease wiped out the making of the majority of our Elms which World kind of preeminent Street tree we had our chestnuts wiped out by Chestnut blight they were like the one of the primary I know trees

is of the Eastern Forest you know that they were like from sheer numbers standpoint where one of the largest numbers almost completely wiped out now only young saplings grow from the dead stamps we have butternut canker killing are butternut trees there's just a we have a fungus that infects a Beech trees and other important you know u s tree so you get thing called Beach snap we have introduced things that are killing off our are hemlocks you are great, so there's a couple hundred year history of having some of our major and important tree species getting wiped out by introduced pathogens so what they're worried about is that some pathogens going to come in and attack all of our commercial cultivars and wipe them out so what they do is they have thousands of varieties of different apples sitting there and you know that way they can figure out which ones are resistant to whatever new pathogen comes in and then they can create new apples from the

that's why they keep them and they still haven't successfully ensured that keeping just the the clonal the the you can't keep apple seeds cuz apples don't grow true to see but they can keep the keep the wood Frozen in liquid nitrogen but some people say that keeping that they would like that so they can make a new grass of it frozen in liquid nitrogen isn't so good because it can cause a sport so I can change slightly from the parent tree so people still say you have to grow all the truth that's why it's there it's a fantastic place to visit okay now back to bramley's so here's the thing I have not cooked with bramley's because I've never really done haven't had a kitchen in the UK and they don't really make me so much over over there I mean the Brits I think they just they just like him a lot the first comes from the UK and was discovered around 1809 it's called a Bramley seedling and what that means is that it was discovered as a sealant wasn't a sport or anything

like that because what you used to do if you spray apple seeds around like in 20 trees would come up maybe one of them was good cuz Apple says I say don't come through the same thing is that you need two other kinds of apple trees near it to have it work right here's what trees don't produce pollen alright Frizzle apple trees don't like to self fertilize usually it's made you need at least two different apple trees near each other to get a good crop of apples right AAA trees have to choose two separate things in general right according to I don't think it keeps attorney more about no one to talk to the fruit fly. AAA fruits like them but they trees tend to produce fewer flowers and they don't typically produce pollen out remember the apple trees can't pollinate themselves so you need a normal you need two different kinds of apple trees right

Moana pain at the other don't really care what the seeds on the inside of the apples are because you're not going to grow from the seat anyway anytime you got to reproduce the Apple you going to do it by grafting okay here's the thing so you got these two apple trees now the bramley's is just sitting there doing nothing doing squat so you have to wait for the other tree to pollinate it right now. Here's everything if you want that treat also produce apples you need a third tree out there to give pollen to that tree because the bramley's is shooting blanks right out there apples are ashmead's kernel which is my favorite Colonel dashboard proceed my favorite all-time drink apple jonagold Lucci crispin's and Gravenstein there's a lot of XXX stuff out there now the other question is what is a soap what are the weird kind of fruits exes that way I got to call her back on the air

hello I don't have a question about doing chicken so I end up doing a lot of catering and I pretty unhappy with the way the chicken turns out

in large quantities being able to reheat it for catering set up and I was just wondering if you had any ideas about how to do something that would be delicious and at the same time you know

somewhat easy to pull off and I catering situation how many how many people on average we talkin

what's this a like a hundred 25 and what kind of you're talking like a main course chicken so hot and what kind of finishing stuff do you usually have with you

what's up with that what I have a circulator I have in a bunch of other stuff I can bring with me but generally we just use the grill or sometimes we have a Benz or like fires and stuff like that has a grill I mean the the issue with chicken right specifically chicken and specifically main dish hot prep chicken is that in order to crisp the Skin Out nicely you need to cook the chicken for chicken skin has to dry out and render and Crisp that's why other than deep frying super fast techniques tend to produce a less than awesome surface on the exterior of the chicken right for him to get way over right now it if you would circulate the chicken before I would bone it unless you need to serve it on the phone because if you Circle

chicken with the bone on it you can tend to get a lot of painting and red around it was doesn't go away and Catering that death right I'm not against the bone in it but I mean I prefer the thighs and I would prefer not to deep inside you know you know what I mean like I mean especially on thighs with that little short bone so much red in that bone that the side that size really turn pink if you anytime you do a low temp like to me the easiest way to get around the problem of cooking a bunch of stuff off the last minute hand is is 2 too low temp but low temp on thigh you're asking for a complete world of hurt if you don't do the other thing you could do is you could if you nitrates in the whole thing I'll be painting to look cured you know what I mean and then people don't mind the pink so much but I people freak out on chickens like for that people just don't want to see

the red the Red Chicken me an advantage of boning write the disadvantage obviously is freaking work right the advantage of the boning is you can then use the foam scraps to make stocks and gravy without having to get anything extra people do like eating acai acai meat boneless I mean what we used to do or doing large-scale chicken for hot prep is we would bone out though the whole chicken and then roll it like in the skin we would do the thighs and and drums on the cut open glued to the skin and then breast meat in the center rolled and then we would post those off at you know in a circulator at like 63-64 that cooks the breast meat in the middle and almost Cooks the other meat all the way through you can let it ride it like 57 pull it and then throw it on the grill to crisp off the skin and take that sign me up a couple of x

degrees to cook it out and that everyone always ends up liking that preparation because everyone gets a little bit of white everyone gets a little bit of dark and boneless but it is a lot of work beforehand the good news is that it's beforehand so it's not work on site if you want to if you want to cook the thighs boneless you're going to have to go to a much higher temperature or just cook it much faster I haven't done a lot of experiments my guess is that if you cooked it at 66 and you kept as layer fairly thin or 67 that you would be able to get rid of some of that painting as long as you cooked it relatively quickly those temperature like in at you know in a in a Combi with it going or or something like that but I haven't done a lot I haven't had any success with bone-in thighs done low temperature what is the is an issue when you do low temperature the red is that coming from I mean when you circulate it at the bag is it is America coming out of the phone or is it more of just the time after

looking for a long time it turns pink I don't know I vacuum will cause stuff to come out of the bone witch it ain't on all the vessels around there and that will put a lot of the pink and a meat around the bone and also the bone is going to act as an insulator mean the same thing that makes it good and doing traditional cooking it insulates the meat so does no to cook right is bad and low temperature cooking because it's slower so if we're kind of protect that and then you know that the redness that. How much are the red is denatured is dependent upon the rate of denaturation so in in in cooking it takes longer. Of time to heat through up to cooking temperatures you going to have more red than you would in a situation where those temperatures are Chiefs quickly so it's kind of your up TT shafted by it

made it can be done but like you're going to want to either you Ziploc bags or very low vacuums and you're going to want to push the temperature is a little bit higher than you would otherwise want to push them so you what you could do is you could do your breasts at 63265 I've never done this but then try to do the legs at like 67 to 68 and see whether or not they're still juicy up at those at those temperatures and maybe those temperatures are high enough to wipe out the pink even with the bones and but if you suck a hard back and you're never going to get rid of the pink

yeah yeah run to the gravy make you weird or one of either two situations happen right either you have a situation back where it where you know the tree is actually pollinated but no seeds for my call that the shooting blanks meth it right that's called actually spermo carpi right and the other one is going to like this one parthenocarpy which which means virgin virgin fruit and that's how things like bananas and certain figs work because they don't need to be pollinated for the fruit to form which is weird right so do you like banana is back in the day before they were like

awesome food things have like a lots of seeds in them and they're fundamentally inedible until I found these ones that had parthenocarpy so and there are certain figs that are also parthenocarpic they don't need any sort of pollination but you know how things are right there like the old school things you know how they're done right you're some weird fruit sex before you go into the mail fig tree and a female born on the same tree and the male ones have the coke a preface to mail trees and they have the same called as sick as I think so right and they lay their eggs in the Fig right and then the Worcester born and they eat their way out of the Fig right and they fly to a female tree go into the Fig and try to make it back out again lay their eggs in and the Fig

wasp on the inside so there's no wasp left it's kind of bizarre fridge sex huh

hey it's Brian to San Francisco how's it going I'm on one tray of apricots and then I did the happy meditite off a tan for the other tray and as far away is the potassium metabisulfite won any other flavor from The sulfur I would guess not right but I could definitely smell I should volatilize anyway while it's dehydrating apricots at that was also I should say is that I did get some Browning on

and you know I still drive increase that Smoke Box where they smoke some kind of sulfur dioxide I guess it is into the into the box I'm going to do a commercially which is how there's no there's no Browning at all heavier-duty dip then then they sell five people for a home dehydration recommend peanuts the same procedure that used to bleach palm fronds up but you know things for making Panama hats they bleach them with us off or they burn sulfur underneath the underneath the Palm leaves so that they can bleach them out for making a Panama hats so yeah

no school technique how is it how is your wife with the cell for knee problems it's just the asmodeus which was in question I have an inhaler nearby sheet that she and she uses in her know you're not going to probably get a I mean at least not one that's life threatening

but it's nice to do this right now I have a cooking is she so I can take a look at it if you if you have another question which is because I tried the immersion blender technique and it and I couldn't save it and then I am I tried Mickey's I look in is that Keith good cooking because I had another joke at the brakes and I couldn't and I also as well so I need some advice on on ratios and technique Chris Young on it we're like my feeling is that the main problem is when you're doing a serious eats technique of using immersion blender without you know what dinosaur the pre mixing is the is the size of the vessel

so if you did you did you hear that one so if you're making the like the trick is okay so I've been contradicted by a couple of listeners who is written in and said that they can make it normally in a large vessel like a quart container but I was running some side-by-side test using the immersion blender to make the mayonnaise in the immersion blender cup which is roughly the same diameter as the bell of the immersion blender and when you do that you're the egg yolk sinks to the bottom it makes an emotion and then builds very quickly and easily right or and then I tried doing it in a quart container and it failed miserably miserably miserably and just like you said I tried to fix it miserable just awful so when you're making it in large vessels mean I would want to do it in large vessels I take away ask I break the egg yolk I hit it I hit it with mustard vinegar hit it and then very very slowly drizzle

in the first bit of oil well I'm furiously mix with my hand until you see a stable Emulsion forming then they do the immersion blender think once you form an emotion then you can kind of go ape you know what I mean then it then all of a sudden nothing matters anymore the hard part about mayonnaise is is a very beginning part getting that initial stable thing going so my feeling is that if you're doing the quart container situation I was some people say they do in the court painter it works but at least with one egg yolk I was unsuccessful because it mix the egg yolk and the oil together before it and form any kind of stable Emulsion and so then you're just hosed now they are the other thing is is that you know you want to you want to make roughly 80% oil 20% water base stuff that's how it works and McGee and I used to do as part of the Curious cook was his second book which

guy shall go on a a b e r on bookfinder whatever and buy a copy of it but you know what he goes through their the experiment of that you can actually make you know many quarts of mayonnaise out of one egg yolk so we used to do that and we have do with a whisk we would get one egg yolk we would hit it with the Whisk and we would start making and then we would just make gallons of mayonnaise with the one with the one egg yolk right there but you have to keep adding water to it right cuz if you get too much oil in the emotional break and then your shafted right so you want to try to stay but the other hand is if you don't have enough oil it's thin so adding the oil up to round 70 and seventy-five seventy to eighty percent 80% right when you get there and when he gets that stick mayonnaise consistency anything less and it's going to be thin anything too much more and the man is going to break but you can always add some liquid back in send it down and then build it back with more oil

okay I got the ratios do I need to refrigerate it ever in the fridge you know they gave guys in New Orleans keep their mayonnaise out all the time they've you should usually when you're making mayonnaise you add acid to the egg yolk portion of it and overtime the very low water activity combined with the acid will kill whatever ails you in the mayonnaise at least so they say but the issue the issue is it mayonnaise right out of the gate is not safe the Japanese guy is QP they might actually also dope it with something to kill kill anything in it but my impression from what I've read is that mayonnaise probably made mayonnaise with an acidifier and it gets safer overtime not less safe over time

how long you think it'll keep my grandma used to my grandma would throw away any sandwich with mayonnaise on it that was out for more than like 20 seconds she would be thrown out but you know I don't have any solid numbers for you but a while

that would make it a small quantities anyway though I mean making stop on his anyway but I'm sure okay by my ear and I may call sobre bread starter but the problem with having them out all the time is that a guy eating gum on so I put in the fridge so the slow down the reaction for both of us just released it at that temperature for the fermentation then it would be at at room temperature or some kind of

consideration I need to bring it to room temp first before when I use it and just kind of store it when I'm not using it in the fridge so anytime you change though either what something is growing on what the start of medium is or anytime you change the growing conditions meaning their temperature which is stored or I guess even really the humidity we can store your going to shift which bacteria and which yeasts are growing properly in that starter right so if you look at any sort of a actual fermentation it's not one specific thing that is growing over the length of the fermentation different organisms take over at different stages depending on what the pH is and depending on what the temperature is excetera excetera depending on how much oxygen is dissolved so the trick is if you want a consistent starter just have to do everything consistently so yes storing it in the fridge will change the culture right somewhat but when you use it as long as you

the same way every time it start the same way every time eventually you'll achieve some sort of consistency you another thing you can do if you want to store it also changes the consistency is a lot of people store their starters of very much more stiff then you would ordinarily form a starter and that slows down all the rates of reactions another thing people do this dope it with more it with more solids more flour

got it all right thanks so much have a good week all right now on our way out I didn't get to talk about Salt Rising bread this time or hickory nuts will get that to that next time I hope but one last fruit snacks my favorite fruit snacks of all is vanilla vanilla vanilla the bean the orc in bright vanilla is from Mexico and in Mexico is pollinated by a special be the only grows in Mexico and when they tried to take vanilla out of the Mexico they could not get it to reliably produced because it will not pollinated cell that turns out that vanilla orchids have a chastity belt on them and vanilla Orchid it's called the arrest Elam and the deal is that vanilla orchids don't want to pollinate themselves they want to prevent self pollination because they don't let vanilla orchids don't appreciate in right now so no one can figure out what the hell is going on no one can get vanilla to produce on the island of I guess in French is crazy but it's reunions in the u.s. language here right which is off the coast of

scarf a slave named Edmond albius figure it out how to how to say it how to sex up the Orchid by remove a bike taking the Orchid flipping open the chastity belt and taking with a little boy to grass and taking his thumb and rubbing the male private parts and the female private parts with his finger and forced incest really pot pollinate vanilla bean and single-handedly this slave invented the vanilla trade that coming out Madagascar coming out of reunions single-handedly now he was a slave so we got almost no credit at all right they they outlawed slavery as soon thereafter in the late 1840s France did right and you just kind of like left to fend for himself no money no nothing he actually got sent you stole some jewelry cuz he who sends to 10 years in prison if that literally was the foundation of this

what was one of the biggest industries over there they finally let him out the clan of coming because they're like yeah I guess you did you know you did give us all our livelihood so they let him out but he died in poverty in 1880 so it turns out that sexy and sexing an orchid doesn't necessarily lead to wealth and fame cooking issues

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